TOEFL スピーキング コツ解説|総合問題 パート 3

TOEFL スピーキング コツ解説|総合問題 パート 3

解答・解説

■ 問題形式

スピーキング2と形式は一緒です。
リーディングとリスニングがあり、
それらの情報を要約してスピーチします。

しかしスピーキング3の内容はアカデミックになります。
ある現象や説の内容コンセプト、その名称などが紹介されます。

■ アプローチ

まだ知らない新しい情報を学ぶ」という姿勢で
リーディング/リスニングを行ってください

実際の勉強でも、学校で学んだことがしっかり理解できているか確認する為、自宅でノートを見直したりして、学んだ内容を頭の中で要約したりして整理します。

基本的にはそれと同じ要約作業を、
英語で、リアルタイムで、そして口に出して行う
と考えてみて下さい。

理解すべき(聞き取るべき)内容と、
推奨されるスピーチの構成はある程度決まっているので、
日々の学習で慣れましょう。

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■ 対策 方法

1.推奨フォーマットを把握

▽スピーチの構成

1.メインのコンセプトを述べる(リーディングから)

2.教授が言及したコンセプトの例/実例(リスニングから)

 2.1.最初の実例(リスニングから
 2.2.二つ目の実例(リスニングから

3.まとめ (リーディング/リスニングから)

▽スピーチの英文テンプレート例

※ X はメインのコンセプトの名称など

・From the reading passage, X is described as ______. (リーディングから)

・The professor illustrates/demonstrates X by giving one/two examples.  (リスニングから)

・In the first example, _____. (リスニングから)

・In the second example, ______. (リスニングから)

・(Optional) In summary/So/Therefore, these examples demonstrate/show X.  (リスニングから)

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2. メモるべき内容の把握

文章を読んだ際にメモる内容

例:コンセプト/テーマの現象の定義

メモ例:

paradox of choice =
++選択肢= >++ 期待 => 間違った選択する不安=>++anxiety

意味:
「※人は選択肢を多く提示された時期待値上がるが悪い選択したくないと思って迷い不安になる」

 

音源を聴く際に聞き取るべき内容 / メモするべき内容は下記となります。

メモ例:

・メインのトピック/コンセプト

・パラグラフ(話題)が移行する際に使われるシグナルワード

・コンセプトの例

3. 目的別の定型文/フレーズを把握

3.1. メインのトピックを述べる定型文

 

1. X is a/an ______ that/who/which/where _________________________

2. X occurs when/where ________________________________

3. A concept/idea/situation________ that/who/which ___________ is referred to as/known as/called X

4. X refers to the idea/concept that ____ or X___ refers to the situation/circumstance where ____

・使用例文:

1. Verbal communication is a type of communication that uses words and language.

2. VC occurs when we use language and speak to each other

3. The style of communication that uses words and language is referred to as VC.

4. VC refers to a style of communication where language and words are used

 

3.2. 話題が移行する際のシグナルワード

タイプ

シグナルワード

パラグラフ/要点が変わる

First/Second/Third
Firstly (or “First of all”)/Secondly/Thirdly (or “Lastly”)
For one thing/For another thing/Finally (or “Lastly”)
In the first place/in the second place/Finally (or “Lastly”)

追加情報を述べる

In addition, furthermore, additionally, also, next, moreover, what’s more, on top of that

結論 / まとめを述べる

To sum up, in summary, in conclusion, to conclude, all in all, all things considered ,overall, taking everything into consideration, in a nutshell

対比/ 反対の内容を述べる

Conversely, on the contrary, by contrast, by way of contrast, on one hand/on the other hand

比較/類似するモノを述べる

Similarly, likewise, by the same token, along similar lines

原因に対する結果を述べる

As a result, as a consequence, consequently, therefore

一般論を述べる

Generally, on the whole, in most cases, in general

要点を簡潔にして再度述べる

That is, in other words, to put it simply, That is to say, just to reiterate

代案/代行になるモノを述べる

Alternatively, as another possibility

3.3. 例が述べられる際のシグナルワード

例を挙げる

For example, for instance, take something, for example, to give a clear example

4. 効率的にメモを取る

下記に、メモに役立つ記号を紹介しています。

▽スピーキングタイプでメモに取るべき内容

  • メインのトピックコンセプト
  • パラグラフ(話題)が移行する際に使われるシグナルワード
  • コンセプトの例

シンボル

意味

使用例

=

refer to, occur, ..etc
(~は~。/~は~と称される。/など)

A concept that people make choices to describe a situation in a positive or negative way is referred to as word framing
Word framing = ppl describe a situation in
or X way.

 

ABです」というBe動詞を伴う文の「は」に当たる記号

Because, as a result of, due to, because, owing to
「なぜなら/その結果/~が原因で/など」

Due to the increasing popularity of e-books, there has been a fall in paper book sales.
↑e-books, paper books $↓

Therefore
「そのため、それが理由で」

Element 43 has radioactive decay, therefore element 43 doesn’t last very long, which means if that ever had been present on earth, it would have decayed ages ago.
Elem43 has radioa. decay
it ≠ last long

=>

result in, lead to, contribute to, give rise to, cause

~の結果になる/~に繋がる/~に貢献する/~を引き起こす、など)

Carbon dioxide significantly contributes to global warming.
CO => global warming

isn’t, doesn’t, don’t, can’t etc.
(~じゃな/~しない/~できない/など)

Element 43 has radioactive decay, therefore element 43 doesn’t last very long, which means if that ever had been present on earth, it would decayed ages ago.
Elem43 has radioa. decay
it ≠ last long

+

many, lots of, a great deal of, etc.
(沢山/大量/多く/一杯/など)

Because potatoes have the ability to provide abundant and extremely nutritious food crop, no other crop grew in Northern Europe. As a result, the nutrition of the general population improved tremendously and population soared in the early 1800s.
potatoes /nutri crop/+vitamins => popul↑ in Europe 1800s

++

Comparatives
(よりも多い/良い/などの比較)

Older and more experienced birds who nest in the high density shrub areas have significantly more offspring than those in low density areas, which suggests the choice of where to nest does have an impact on the number of chicks they have.
older birds /nest in high shrub ++offsprings birds/nest in low shrub

+++

Superlatives
(最も/一番/などの最上級)

What was even more surprising were all the large organisms that lived down there. The most distinctive of these was something called the tube worm. Here, let me show you a picture. The tube of the tube worm is really, really long. They can be up to one and half meters long, and these tubes are attached to the ocean floor, pretty weird looking, huh?
! +++special = tube warm /long/tubes attached to ocean floor

Little, few, lack ,in short of/ be in shortage of, etc.
(少ない/減ってる/不足/など)

As I said the monsoon migrated itself, so there was less rain in the Sahara. The land started to get drier, which in turn caused huge decreases in the amount of vegetation, because vegetation doesn’t grow as well in dry soil, right? And then, less vegetation means the soil can’t hold water and the soil loses its ability to retain water when it does rain. So then you have less moisture to help clouds form, nothing to evaporate for cloud formation.
– rain in Sahara
land ++dry => vegetation↓
–vegetation => soil ≠ hold water => -water to form cloud

!

Important, interesting
(興味深い/重要な)

But what’s particularly interesting about these volcanoes is that most of the volcanoes here on Earth are not shield volcanoes. Instead, they are other volcano types, like strata volcanoes, for example, which are a result of tectonic plate movement.
! volcanoes on earth ≠ shield volcanoes = strata volcanoes
tectonic plate => volcanoes on earth

Increase, improve, progress, become high
(増える/成長する/前進する/数値が上がる/など)

Because potatoes have the ability to provide abundant and extremely nutritious food crop, no other crop grew in Northern Europe. As a result, the nutrition of the general population improved tremendously and population soared in the early 1800s.
potatoes /nutri crop/+vitamins => popul↑ in Europe 1800s

Decrease, worsen, drawback, lower
(減る/悪化する/後退する/数値が下がる)

As I said the monsoon migrated itself, so there was less rain in the Sahara. The land started to get drier, which in turn caused huge decreases in the amount of vegetation, because vegetation doesn’t grow as well in dry soil, right? And then, less vegetation means the soil can’t hold water and the soil loses its ability to retain water when it does rain. So then you have less moisture to help clouds form, nothing to evaporate for cloud formation.
– rain in Sahara
land ++dry => vegetation↓
–vegetation => soil ≠ hold water => -water to form cloud

 

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